Thanks for visiting this blog, a work in progress since 2015, especially if you’ve come here from my keithricflickFlickr site. Hope you find something interesting. I want your experience to be as user friendly as possible! ……………..For the most recent posts, choose from the list on the right
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My goal is to share photos and stories of wildlife, particularly birds, in the Okanagan Region. You’ll also find “bonus information” from other places I’ve travelled to. Secondly, when the muses dictate, I’ll offer some rambling about politics and other topics of general interest. Look under Politics~
To get you started quickly and easily, I’ve posted links to some popular posts just below.
I’ll change the Recommended posts links (below in blue) from time to time.
July 11, 2017: ~ The spring / summer of 2017 was supposed to be super special for us. And, in many respects, so far, it has lived up to those expectations. We enjoyed sunny, albeit cool weather, car camping (above — something new for us and probably questionable at our age), and fabulous trips across western Canada (May 24 – June 11) and up to BC’s Cariboo region (June 28 – July 3) .
Click any cluster of photos to enlarge them.
Late snow on Little White Mountain. Kelowna lies over the foreground hill in the valley between.
High water at Robert Lake. Eventually the road in the foreground was covered, too! Few had EVER seen levels so high.
But the season has brought mixed blessings. A surprisingly cold spring delayed the melting of winter snow in the hills. In late March the summits received late snowfalls. By mid-May we suddenly had the highest levels in our lakes and streams in years. We headed for the east as scheduled, wondering what we might return to in three weeks. While the flood threat did not materialize to the extent it might have, our tourism-dependent region has suffered considerable disruption and bad publicity.
Ducks hold a meeting about the flood in Thomson Marsh….
Carp evolving where voles used to play?
Our lovely Thomson Marsh overflowed and flooded the southeastern corner of my beat. It’s only now beginning to normalize. While we waited for the water to subside, we planned a trip to visit friends in BC’s Cariboo region around our July 1 national celebrations.
We had just left the 108 and 100 Mile areas after our five-day visit when wildfires broke out across central-northern BC on July 6 and 7. In only two days, the areas we had just been visiting were under evacuation orders. Our good friends at the 108 were forced to grab what they could, including their flock of 12 chickens, and find shelter elsewhere, not knowing whether their home would survive or not…. There no end in sight to this tragic story.
Day 2 of Gustafsen Fire — just getting started
3 days later and even more threatening….
While wildfire was the story elsewhere, only a few blocks from home a five story condo under construction burned to the ground due to human error!
I’ll update the fire stories when we have more certainty about their outcome….
So, for the benefit of family and friends, here are some highlights of our Prairies trip.
Prairie Trip Days 1 and 2: Kelowna to Waterton Lakes, AB.
After stopping at Cranbrook (see caption above), we discovered the next morning, bright and refreshing after the evening shower, the charms of that city’s Elizabeth Lake Bird Sanctuary. A large, marshy lake, its shallow shorelines are great breeding places for ducks and geese, Eared Grebes, and various songbirds including various swallows and warblers like the Common Yellowthroat.
A few photos of what we found:
Common Yellowthroat practises his vocals!
COYE comes for a visit, but only so far. Still better than anything I’d see for four years!!
Tree Swallows were very friendly!
Here he’s just showing off his wonderful colour!
But the highlight of our short tour, which we nearly missed, was this encounter with a Killdeer defending his nest. Near the end of our walk, we almost ignored the pair, but couldn’t resist taking a closer look. And we’re glad we did. The male Killdeer was one of the bravest I’ve ever seen. We spotted him first in the grass:
Later he mounted a small knoll in front of us and defiantly stared me down. I advanced a little bit, expecting him to retreat. To my surprise, he moved towards me, as if to say, “No, you don’t! Not one step closer!” In the cluster of photos below, you can trace his trajectory by using the large pebbles as references…. Had never seen this behaviour before.
Click any photos in the cluster to enlarge it.
This is my turf…
and you’re an intruder…
and you can point that thing…
at me all you want, but you’re getting any closer to our nest!
Eventually, I retreated, and so did he, giving me a great performance of his “broken wing act” to conclude the episode. It was a great way to begin our trip!
“Oh, I’m injured! Really!
“Totally mangled! Come have a look [heh, heh]!
We also encountered some very calm Canada Geese and their progeny:
“Funny! That sign doesn’t even mention us!”
“You eat! I’ll be the lookout!”
“Mom, wait for me! It’s not easy with these big feet”
“I luv my mum!”
“Okay, babies, stay together now!”
We also had great opportunities to observe a couple of species we don’t usually get so close to:
Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) – 1
Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) – 2
“OMG! What have I got myself into?”
“I’m such a handsome dude!”
Called to The Bar…. Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia)
Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) propelled by tail power. “The only species in genus Ondatra and tribe Ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and is an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America. The muskrat is found in wetlands over a wide range of climates and habitats.” (Wikipedia)
“I Am Curious Motley!” Columbia Ground Squirrel (Urocitellus columbianus)
The second part of Day 2 saw us drive from Cranbrook to Waterton Lakes, but that’s for another post — coming soon….
In my homage to favourite shots from 2016,I touched on Wilson’s Phalaropes only briefly. On May 15, 2017, the middle of another cold Spring month (!), unable to find the Orioles I know have returned to Mill Creek, I drove a little further out to Robert Lake. Despite the exceedingly high water, the viewing area offered good looks at a variety of ducks, as well as a few wading birds. Among these, the WIPHs were most prominent and active. Here are a few of the different looks provided by a handful of birds that were not foraging, but preening and simply relaxing, while their fellows scurried hither and thither in the main pond on the other side of the road.
Phalaropes are actually quite small — about the same size as a Killdeer, especially after their long trip from their wintering areas up north to Kelowna. They will grow considerably larger as they replenish all the calories expended to get here. (See ‘Cool Facts‘ below)
A western bird for the most part, WIPHs can also be found near the Canadian-American border in Ontario, QC, and NB/NS.
These birds travel long distances from South America in winter to western Canada in breeding season!
Make sure you capture…
…my best sides —both of them!
Unlike most species of birds, female WIPHs display much more vivid colours than their mates. (I’ll add more photos of males as I acquire them. The males were too busy foraging for good shots in the low light of this day….). Cornell’s Lab of Ornithology points out, moreover, that, “Females court and defend male mates—several per season—while males do most of the work of raising the young.”
“Cool Facts (Cornell)
Unlike most birds where the female has the predominant role in caring for young, female phalaropes desert their mates once they’ve laid eggs. While the male raises the young by himself, the female looks for other males to mate with. This unusual mating system is called polyandry, and it’s reflected in the way the two sexes look, with the females more brightly colored than the males.
Wilson’s Phalaropes are one of only two species of shorebirds that molt at resting sites on the migration pathway, rather than on the breeding grounds before leaving or on the wintering grounds.
While stopping over to molt on salty lakes in the West, Wilson’s Phalaropes usually eat so much that they double their body weight. Sometimes they get so fat that they cannot even fly, allowing researchers to catch them by hand.
Wilson’s Phalaropes almost always lay a clutch of exactly four eggs.
Even smaller than the Wilson’s Phalarope is the Least Sandpiper (Calidris minutilla), which have also been hanging around the same area, looking rather bemused by the high water….
In 2015, January, as we were preparing to move up to this wonderful place, Nana and I were house sitting, ironically, just across the lane from the condo we were purchasing. I had excellent opportunities to familiarize myself with the neighbourhood, especially Thomson Marsh. At the same time, a delightful romp of North American River Otters showed up for a two week stay where the marsh widens into pools, very close to home. Despite the low light, I was able to get some photos and video. Since then, despite reports from others, I have not seen them in numbers.
In March 2017, I caught the back of one swimming upstream away from me, and, a day or so later, just missed seeing several in the same spot they’d visited in 2015. Fortunately, another local fotog was able to get some images.
Recently, I was reminded of the 2015 experience when Angela, one of the folks I frequently encounter on my beat, asked if I’d seen any otters lately. That gave me a chance to share some entertaining (she said) video from two years ago. I promised her links, and finally, here they are!!
The first two links are back to my Flickr site. Below them are links to my Youtube account where the videos, also available via Flickr in rough form, have been enhanced to make them easier on the eyes!
See a icon over a photo or link? Click to see an enlarged image or go to another place.
For Woodpeckers Galore, a post based on the same visit to Anarchist Mtn., click here.
May 1, 2015: As promised at the end of the Woodpeckers Galore post, I want to share photos of one of the most industrious Pileated Woodpeckers I’ve the pleasure to observe. We get so see him in dust covered overalls in the midst of his renovations of an existing cavity that is apparently to be reused. His mate sat quietly in a shady nearby tree about 30 meters away. By the way, we know he’s a male by his red malar stripe.
I have watched PIWOs excavate before, chipping away at huge chunks of a tree mainly in search of grubs living in the wood. The shot below was taken Dec. 31, 2015 in Kelowna.
This spring, however, PIWO’s digging reminded me, ironically, of what I saw last year when the smallest of nuthatches, the Pygmy, was working on a nest in a burned Ponderosa stump. There was a steady stream of detritus and dust being flung from the dead tree’s orifice as the shot below shows.
Woody, the subject of this post was in almost constant motion between 12:47 when I took the first shot of him already enlarging the cavity to the last one at 1:05. He had been at it, our ears told us, for some time before we located him, and he wasn’t finished when we withdrew for lunch. Around the time we left, he did take a break to communicate with his mate and to check the area.
Here are the photos. The blurriest betray the constant motion mentioned earlier. In many cases, I had to time my pressing of the shutter button to catch his full profile….
Doing the job! Click any photo in cluster to enlarge them all….
Flinging over his head…
and a breather!
Checking for his mate…
Listening for her call….
Back to work….
I hope to return from time to time to find out whether Woody and Wimsie are successful in raising another generation of these largest of our many fascinating woodpeckers….
The Pileated Woodpecker digs characteristically rectangular holes in trees to find ants. These excavations can be so broad and deep that they can cause small trees to break in half.
A Pileated Woodpecker pair stays together on its territory all year round. It will defend the territory in all seasons, but will tolerate new arrivals during the winter.
The feeding excavations of a Pileated Woodpecker are so extensive that they often attract other birds. Other woodpeckers, as well as House Wrens, may come and feed there. (Interestingly, we saw a House Wren on the day we visited this guy!)
The Pileated Woodpecker prefers large trees for nesting. In young forests, it will use any large trees remaining from before the forest was cut. Because these trees are larger than the rest of the forest, they present a lightning hazard to the nesting birds.
The oldest known Pileated Woodpecker was a male, and at least 12 years, 11 months old when he was recaptured and rereleased during banding operations in Maryland
“The Pileated Woodpecker’s primary food is carpenter ants, supplemented by other ants, woodboring beetle larvae, termites, and other insects such as flies, spruce budworm, caterpillars, cockroaches, and grasshoppers. They also eat wild fruits and nuts, including greenbrier, hackberry, sassafrass, blackberries, sumac berries, poison ivy, holly, dogwood, persimmon, and elderberry. In some diet studies, ants constituted 40 percent of the diet, and up to 97 percent in some individuals. Occasionally, Pileated Woodpeckers visit backyard bird feeders for seeds or suet.”
Nesting: Nesting Facts
Clutch Size: 3–5 eggs
Number of Broods: 1 brood
Egg Length: 1.2–1.4 in ; 3–3.5 cm
Egg Width: 0.9–1 in ; 2.4–2.6 cm
Incubation Period: 15–18 days
Nestling Period: 24–31 days
Egg Description: White.
Condition at Hatching: Naked and helpless.
“The male begins excavating the nest cavity and does most of the work, but the female contributes, particularly as the hole nears completion. The entrance hole is oblong rather than the circular shape of most woodpecker holes. For the finishing touches, the bird climbs all the way into the hole and chips away at it from the inside. Periodically the adult picks up several chips at a time in its bill and tosses them from the cavity entrance. Pileated Woodpeckers don’t line their nests with any material except for leftover wood chips. The nest construction usually takes 3-6 weeks, and nests are rarely reused in later years.* Cavity depth can range from 10-24 inches.” * This appears NOT to be the case for our bird….
“Considered a keystone species, the Pileated Woodpecker plays a crucial role in many forest ecosystems in North America by excavating large nesting, roosting and foraging cavities that are subsequently used by a diverse array of birds and mammals—for shelter and nesting—particularly the larger secondary cavity users (e.g., Boreal Owl, Wood Duck, and American marten; Bull et al. 1997, Bonar 2000, Aubry and Raley 2002a). Pileated Woodpeckers accelerate wood decomposition and nutrient recycling by breaking apart snags and logs and may facilitate inoculation of heartwood in live trees with heart-rot fungi. They may also be important in helping control some forest beetle populations because their diet consists primarily of wood-dwelling ants and beetle larvae that are extracted from down woody material and from standing live and dead trees.”
April 30, 2017: Among the birds that folks out here who are determinedly “non-birders” can name, woodpeckers are popular. Most will at least recognize a Flicker (but don’t ask them to separate Red-shafted, Yellow-shafted and Intergrades, please), perhaps a Hairy or a Downy (though few can identify the differences), maybe a Pileated (although they probably know it better as Woody Woodpecker). Back east, they may have seen a Red-headed or Red-bellied, the former rather obviously named, the latter clearly not. They’ve likely heard of a Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, yet never seen one, or any of the other sapsuckers — the Red-naped of the BC Interior or the Red-breasted closer to The Coast.
But there are many woodpeckers that “cross the border” into Canada that even regular birders have not seen. Lewis’s were new to me only a few years ago; in a way they helped to bring me to the Okanagan (click here for Lewis’s in another page). Acorn, White-headed, and Williamson’s were on my own list. Two of this group still are. Last week, however, the list shrank by 33%.
Acting on a hot tip from Richard Kobayashi, a fellow Kelowna birder / photographer, who gave us the exact location we needed, we travelled south to Anarchist Mountain located near the Canada-US border between Osoyoos and Rock Creek, BC. About one kilometre north of Highway 3 on the Sidley Mountain Road, we found our targets right where Richard said they’d be, an engaging pair of Williamson’s, as well as three other species plus the usual bluebirds and wrens and sparrows expected in this region this time of year. We had a fabulous birding experience!
The property belongs to Ed Brouwer, an engaging fellow about whom I’ll no doubt write future posts. Ed was kind enough to allow us onto the property; without that permission, most of these photos would not have been possible. Nana and I are greatly appreciative of his generous sharing of the bounty residing on his land!
Williamson’s are relatively rare in Canada, found only in southern BC. In 2005, in aSpecies at Risk bulletin, the Government of Canada estimated that only 430 birds crossed the border into our country to breed. The report noted that the species was in decline as habitat became threatened. More on that later in this post. Let’s get to the photos:
Let me say, right off the top, that the male’s wonderful colours are exceedingly difficult to capture with equipment such as mine. I didn’t fully realize this until I returned home and looked at the quality of my images. Trying to photograph both on an Aspen is a terrific challenge from a white balance / black balance standpoint! The good news is that I have more reason to return and try to improve!
Unlike many of our BC woodpeckers, Williamson’s are sexually dimorphic, so different in appearance that many early observers thought the male and female were different species! The image of the female (below) attests to why: (Click cluster images to enlarge.)
Williamson’s male (low quality shot)
Williamson’s female turned out better.
Pair together; he’s at the nest hole.
As we watched their behaviour, we noticed that both birds kept leaving the big Aspens to visit the bottom five feet of a nearby young Balsam Fir. Closer examination after they left it showed why: (Click cluster images to enlarge.)
Sapsuckers feed here.
Closeup of the sap wells.
Profile of the sap wells.
We were ecstatic about the opportunity to examine their habitat so closely. But the story doesn’t end here. In fact, it was just the beginning. We also had a blast observing the other woodpeckers of this small forest.
Having seen Red-naped sapsuckers up close four years ago, I decided not to pursue them this time. I will go back for them another time, I’m sure!
Instead, I focused on a very cooperative and hard-working Hairy that allowed me over a seven-minute span (I departed before he did) to observe him drilling a new hole.
(Click cluster images to enlarge.)
First encounter with Hairy at the hole.
Close up; no fear of fotog!
Proud of his work!
“Really into it,” you might say!
We also got to watch a Pileated male re-excavating a nest hole while his mate observed nearby. That’s covered in a separate post, but here’s a teaser:
For full Navigation Instructions for this blog, click here.
Every spring we look forward to the return of Ruddy Ducks from their wintering grounds to the south and west (jump tomaps at the end of this post). Two locations where we have most success are Robert Lake on Kelowna’s northern border, and Birdie Lake at Predator Ridge Resort, a few km. south of Vernon, BC. In May 2015, we were treated to the appearance for a couple of days of a solitary Ruddy drake virtually in our back yard, Belmont Pond, shown above.
Our most reliable site for these fascinating little narcissists is Birdie Lake. We discovered this gem about 10 years ago when my son was working at the Ridge and staying only a short walk from the ‘pond.’ It’s a great place for a variety of waterfowl and perching birds. This Spring we were even treated to the calls of Great Horned Owls (although, sadly, we did not locate them). While the RUDUs usually are best photographed in the small ponds on the southwest side, they can also be observed from the deck on the peninsula at the northwest end. That’s where we were able to find and photograph them this year: five bemused drakes and a single, amused hen.
We were treated to some very interesting, indeed, entertaining courtship behaviour from the males. The lady offered some encouragement — as the photos show.
You’re so vain….
…you prob’ly think this set is about you!
Don’t you? Don’t you!
What’s wrong with that?!
Getting the colour balance right with these drakes is always a challenge!
The Audubon Field Guide online, describes our little buddy as: “An odd little diver, the main North American representative of the group of stiff-tailed ducks, with spiky tail feathers that are often cocked up in the air. Usually lethargic, and seems reluctant to fly. On takeoff it must patter across the surface of the water to become airborne, then whirs along on rapidly beating wings. On land it is almost helpless. Flocks of Ruddies wintering on lakes seldom mix freely with other ducks, although they may associate with American Coots.”
Cornell’s Lab or Ornithology adds this description: “Ruddy Duck[drake]s are compact, thick-necked waterfowl with seemingly oversized tails that [in Spring] they habitually hold upright. Breeding males are almost cartoonishly bold, with a sky-blue bill, shining white cheek patch, and gleaming chestnut body. They court females by beating their bill against their neck hard enough to create a swirl of bubbles in the water.” And here’s what this behaviour looked like in the last week of April 2017 (Sorry about the low quality here):
Whew! I’m almost bubbled out!
Hope she’s impressed!
Last look goes to Her Nibs, who looks marvellously unimpressed by the entire show!
I am the target text.
There is some discrepancy in the range maps of the three different sources below. Just goes to show that “The Internet” is not necessarily the arbiter of truth…. Take your pick!
Ruddy Ducks lay big, white, pebbly-textured eggs—the largest of all duck eggs relative to body size. Energetically expensive to produce, the eggs hatch into well-developed ducklings that require only a short period of care.
The bright colors and odd behavior of male Ruddy Ducks drew attention from early naturalists, though they didn’t pull any punches. One 1926 account states, “Its intimate habits, its stupidity, its curious nesting customs and ludicrous courtship performance place it in a niche by itself…. Everything about this bird is interesting to the naturalist, but almost nothing about it is interesting to the sportsman.”
Pleistocene fossils of Ruddy Ducks, at least 11,000 years old, have been unearthed in Oregon, California, Virginia, Florida, and Illinois.
Ruddy Ducks are very aggressive toward each other and toward other species, especially during the breeding season. They are even known to chase rabbits feeding on the shore.
Though Ruddy Ducks are native to the Americas, one population became established in England after captive ducks escaped in 1952. This population grew to about 3,500 individuals by 1992, and now appears to be expanding into the Netherlands, France, Belgium, and Spain.
Ruddy Ducks get harassed by Horned Grebes, Pied-billed Grebes, and American Coots during the breeding season. The grebes sometimes attack Ruddy Ducks from below the water, a behavior known as “submarining.”
The oldest Ruddy Duck on record was a male and at least 13 years, 7 months old. He was banded in British Columbia and 1951 and found in Oregon in 1964.
And a final note from the Audubon Field Guide website:
Current population apparently much lower than historical levels, owing to unrestricted shooting early in 20th century and to loss of nesting habitat.
Let’s hope that restoration of habitat will help these peculiar and loveable little waterfowl!
I’m known in a few places for my goofy sense of humour — my predilection for anomalies, ironies, childish imagination. So, if you’re not into such silliness, you’re in the wrong place! Run away, NOW!
But if you can tolerate a certain amount of not-so-serious-stuff, here’s a little to snack on:
Remember: if images show a icon, click to enlarge in a new tab….
Waterfowl who wannabe predators:
Last spring we saw a goose that was roosting on a cleanly topped tree trunk probably 20 feet above Mission Creek. Her mate (it had to be a female, right? It was during breeding season when all kinds of new ideas float in the air….) stood in the creek below, looking up as if to say, “So that’s it? You’ve left me for ‘a room with a view’?” Well, unfortunately, I wasn’t able to capture that situation (we saw it there a couple of times over several days), this year we’ve something similar again, several times in various places with different geese and a female Mallard.
April 13, 2017:
April 21, 2017:
While visiting Robert Lake, I noticed something plopped on top of a post of the white fence at an adjacent horse farm: on closer examination, here’s what I found:
I see you! What’s your problem? Never seen a posted duck before?
Hmm; at some point I’m going to have to get off this thing, and I can’t even get my feet under me! Yikes!
Never did see how she resolved her situation.
Later that afternoon, on a quick visit to Munson Pond around sundown to check out the local North American Beaver, Castor canadensis, we also encountered this rabble rouser; I think her name is Forrest Goose, and she spoke with a thick tongue like a great Political Science professor from the Philippines I was enjoyed:
“Lithen up fellow creathures of the foresth!”
“Itth me, Forreth Gooth, and I have a few thingth to thay! Heronth and Othpreyth are not the only oneth who can thit up in treeth!”
“OK, Cango, I’ll get down thith time, but one o’ thethe dayth….
…one o’ thethe dayth, I’m gonna change the world!”
2017: Closer to home, we have the ongoing saga of the Turtle Sitters of Belmont Pond….
Last year (2016), the duties fell to the Wood Ducks. Could be the reason they eventually moved to a different location to raise their own brood.
Wilbur and Wilma Wodu with their turtle charges
“Have you seen Kilroy?” “I thought you were watchin’ I’im!”
“Oh, never mind! I see ‘im!”
“Kilroy! You get back here on this log right now, you hear! I’m comin’ t’ getcha! Stay right there!”
“Now that the Wodus have gone, are you our new sitter?” “Sheesh! What have I got myself into?!”
And, in 2017, Mergus has a new mate, and guess who’s been handed the Turtle-sitting chores? You guessed it! Miranda Merganser. And Kilroy’s a year older and bolder….
Hope you found something to chuckle over, or, as the poet asks, “What’s the point?”
Some of you have already seen a large chunk of my Wood Ducks collection on the About this blog page that you’ve accessed from the banner at the top of the website! But, having been obsessed with these gorgeous waterfowl for nearly three decades, and photographing them for several years, now, I have more I’d like to share.
So, fotos first; discussion delivered at de end…
From Belmont Pond 2017: if images show a icon, click to enlarge in a new tab….
Caught them canoodling (WODU- style) recently in the smaller Belmont Pond. One of these photos was very well received on Flickr (Affectionate Wood Ducks).
Click on any photo in the cluster to enlarge all of ’em. Once enlarged, you can scroll down in a photo and click View Full Size to enlarge that image in a new tab…. Close the cluster by clicking the small x in top right corner of enlarged photos.
“Can you speak up a bit? I can hardly hear you!”
“You want to what?? Here? Now?”
“I’m thinking; I’m thinking….”
“Okay! Great idea! But let’s go back under the bridge where it’s more private….”
Single shots of Wilbur, 2017:
Wilbur in Golden Pond – 1
Belmont Pond, Kelowna, BC.
And from years past, other WODUs I have known:
From Burnaby Lake, 2016:
Juvenile WODU, Piper Spit, Burnaby Lake, BC.
Juvenile WODU, Piper Spit, Burnaby Lake, BC.
Juvenile WODU, Piper Spit, Burnaby Lake, BC.
From Belmont Pond, 2016, a photo with a twist…taken on a very calm day!
WODU-lings, Burnaby Lake, 2016:
There are more images, but that’s enough for now. Here’s a little background on these wonderful Wood Ducks from a couple of Internet sources.
“Beautiful and unique, this duck of woodland ponds and river swamps has no close relatives, except for the Mandarin Duck of eastern Asia. Abundant in eastern North America in Audubon’s time, the Wood Duck population declined seriously during the late 19th century because of hunting and loss of nesting sites [due to cutting of large trees, combined with hunting pressure]. Its recovery to healthy numbers was an early triumph of wildlife management. Legal protection and provision of nest boxes helped recovery; many thousands of nest boxes now occupied by Wood Ducks in U.S. and southern Canada. In recent years, apparently has been expanding range in north and west.”
“These birds live in wooded swamps, where they nest in holes in trees or in nest boxes put up around lake margins. They are one of the few duck species equipped with strong claws that can grip bark and perch on branches.
Natural cavities for nesting are scarce, and the Wood Duck readily uses nest boxes provided for it. If nest boxes are placed too close together, many females lay eggs in the nests of other females.
The Wood Duck nests in trees near water, sometimes directly over water, but other times over a mile away. After hatching, the ducklings jump down from the nest tree and make their way to water. The mother calls them to her, but does not help them in any way. The ducklings may jump from heights of over 50 feet without injury.
Wood Ducks pair up in January, and most birds arriving at the breeding grounds in the spring are already paired. The Wood Duck is the only North American duck that regularly produces two broods in one year. [In my observations, however, the male often departs after the brood reaches water, leaving all rearing chores to his mate!]
The oldest recorded Wood Duck was a male and at least 22 years, 6 months old. He had been banded in Oregon and was found in California.
Clutch Size: 6–16 eggs
Number of Broods: 1-2
Egg Length: 4.6–6.1 cm (1.8–2.4 in) Egg Width: 3.5–4.2 cm (1.4–1.7 in)
Egg Description: Glossy creamy white to tan. Incubation Period: 28–37 days
Nestling Period: 56–70 days
Condition at Hatching: Chicks hatch alert and with a full coat of down. A day after hatching they leave the nest by jumping out of the entrance.
Nest cavities can have openings as small as 4 inches across, and these may be preferred because they are harder for predators to enter. Wood Ducks sometimes use much larger openings, up to a couple of feet across. Cavity depths are variable; they average about 2 feet deep but in rotten trees can be 15 feet deep (the young use their clawed feet to climb out). Nest boxes of many designs have proved very popular and successful with Wood Ducks*, though plastic nest boxes can overheat in strong sun. The female lines the nest with down feathers she takes from her breast.
*We are waiting to see if the 3 WODU nest boxes installed in Belmont Pond (winter of 2016-7) will be accepted by any of the species that visit the pond this spring.
Breeding pairs search for nest cavities during early morning. The male stands outside as the female enters and examines the site. They typically choose a tree more than 1 foot and often 2 feet in diameter, with a cavity anywhere from 2–60 feet high (higher sites seem to be preferred). These cavities are typically places where a branch has broken off and the tree’s heartwood has subsequently rotted. Woodpecker cavities are used less frequently. Wood Ducks cannot make their own cavities. The nest tree is normally situated near to or over water, though Wood Ducks will use cavities up to 1.2 miles from water.”
Finally, for those who made it this far, when Nana and I purchased a signed print of Robert Bateman’s wonderful “On the pond — Wood Ducks” (below), I had the chance to ask the artist whether he preferred the Wood Ducks or the Mandarin Ducks that he had done in Asia. I explained that I had seen both in the wild, the latter in Japan in my days in Sapporo. He was eager to discuss for a moment as he was about to head off to Hokkaido and wanted to know if I could tell him anything about the marsh he was headed to. (I could and did, but that’s not the story.)
Robert Bateman “On the Pond —Wood Ducks”
Robert Bateman “Old Willow — Mandarin Pair”
He answered my question without hesitation, partly by avoiding it. He said that “Wood Ducks” was far more memorable because it had become his bête noire — a work he had struggled with off and on for 11 years before he finally declared it was as good as it was ever going to get. The light* was the main issue that he felt he couldn’t quite resolve.
On his affection for Wood Ducks, Bateman has said,
“My admiration does not stop at their appearance. I love the kind of place where they live. I have a soft spot in my heart for swamps with the lushness, the still water, the reflections, the complex light and the abundance of wildlife. Some of my happiest hours have been spent in and around swamps, watching and listening. Perhaps if I am very lucky I will hear a prothonotary warbler. But It is always a thrill to hear the shrill, questioning call of a wood duck as a pair (virtually always a pair) takes off and swiftly, almost miraculously, dashes between the trees and disappears. The glimpse is worth it.”
Now that I’m committed to photography, I believe I know what he means….
The Bateman print hangs in our dining room where we can enjoy it every day!
*In his memoir, Life Sketches (Simon & Shuster Canada, 2015) Bateman discusses light on p.219:
“Light, I tell students, is critical. I love backlit scenes, or scenes lit from the side. I like diffuse light, the kind offered on a cloudy day. I love mist and fog and ambience. But when you paint a scene where there is any kind of light, the key question is this: Where is the light coming from? Every shadow in that painting must be true to the source of light. I tell students: Be a slave, not to the creature you’re depicting, or the feathers on that bird’s body, or the landscape your describing, but to the light source and the form that it reveals.”
Wise words: a challenge I can spend the rest of my days working on….
Finally, a bird I’ve been very pleased to see in widespread locations this Spring. I understand they’re even abundant at The Coast this year: the Say’s Phoebe (Sayornis saya). I’ve been fascinated with them for decades, but only starting finding them in the last 7 years or so — always in the Okanagan. The group below could have been put into a cluster, but, as they’re my best shots of this species, so far, I’m giving them full feature treatment!
Say’s Phoebe’s range is…
quite similar to the Mountain Bluebird’s!
Thanks to Cornell’s Lab of Ornithology for the maps above and the description below.
“Like other phoebes, the Say’s Phoebe is seemingly undaunted by people and often nests on buildings. These open-country birds have cinnamon-washed underparts and a rather gentle expression. They sally from low perches to snatch insects in midair or pounce on them on the ground. Say’s Phoebes often pump their tails while perched on a wire, fence post, or low bush. They breed farther north than any other flycatcher and are seemingly limited only by the lack of nest sites.” (https://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Says_Phoebe/id)
Charles Bonaparte, a nephew of Napoleon, named the Say’s Phoebe after American naturalist Thomas Say, the first scientist to encounter the bird, at a site near Cañon City, Colorado, in 1819. During the same expedition, Say also collected 10 additional bird species. Despite finding several new bird species in his career, Say is perhaps better known as the “father of American entomology.”
Say’s Phoebes have been in the U.S. for a long time. Paleontologists discovered Say’s Phoebe fossils in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas dating back to about 400,000 years ago (the late Pleistocene).
The Say’s Phoebe breeds farther north than any other flycatcher and is seemingly limited only by the lack of nest sites. Its breeding range extends from central Mexico all the way to the arctic tundra. It may be following the Alaska pipeline even farther north, nesting on the pipeline itself.
When a Say’s Phoebe finds a good nesting site, it often uses the nest year after year. In central Kansas a Say’s Phoebe reused the same nest 5 years in a row.
Say’s Phoebes will nest just about anywhere: in mailboxes, on machinery, and even in old nests built by other species. Researchers reported them using nests built by Black and Eastern phoebes, Cliff, Bank, and Barn swallows, and American Robins.
Say’s Phoebes tend to perch on low shrubs or even grasses from which they sally out to grab flying insects. They often wag or pump their tails when perched, although they do this less often than either Eastern or Black phoebes. Their flight is direct, buoyant, and graceful. They form pair bonds early in the spring, although it is unclear if pairs stay together for multiple years. Males escort females around to potential nest sites. He flutters his wings while chattering to the female until she selects a spot to build a nest. One or both phoebes often return to the same territory year after year, sometimes even reusing nests from the previous year, but it’s not clear if it is with the same mate. During the nonbreeding season, phoebes are mostly solitary.”
Again, thanks to Cornell LoO for this info. Please be sure to visit their site, too!